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Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. A da microsystem design ada 1. This particular image, taken with Nomarski optics, presents a wafer-bonded piezoresistive pressure sensor. It is fabricated in the sealed-cavity process developed by Professor Martin Schmidt of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology with his graduate students, Lalitha Parameswaran and Charles Hsu. The piezoresistors are clearly visible, and the slight contrast across the central diaphragm region shows that the diaphragm is actually slightly bent by the pressure difference between the ambient and the sealed cavity beneath.

This page intentionally left blank 7. How are they made? What are they made of? How are they designed? Microsystems vs. Contents ix 6. Contents xi Contents xv By bringing together all aspects of microsystem design, it can be expected to facilitate the training of not only a new generation of engineers, but perhaps a whole new type of engineer — one capable of addressing the complex range of problems involved in reducing entire systems to the micro- and nano-domains. This book breaks down disciplinary barriers to set the stage for systems we do not even dream of today.

Microsystems have a long history, dating back to the earliest days of micro- electronics. While integrated circuits developed in the early s, a number of laboratories worked to use the same technology base to form integrated sensors. The idea was to reduce cost and perhaps put the sensors and circuits together on the same chip. By the lates, integrated MOS-photodiode arrays had been developed for visible imaging, and silicon etching was being used to create thin diaphragms that could convert pressure into an electrical signal.

By , selective anisotropic etching was being used for diaphragm formation, retaining a thick silicon rim to absorb package-induced stresses.

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Impurity- and electrochemically-based etch-stops soon emerged, and "bulk micromachining" came into its own. Wafer bonding especially the electrostatic silicon-glass bond added additional capability and was applied to many structures, includ- ing efforts to integrate an entire gas chromatography system on a single wafer. Many of these activities took place in university laboratories, where sensor research could make important contributions that complemented industry.

The work was carried out primarily by electrical engineers trained in microelectron- ics, who often struggled to understand the mechanical aspects of their devices. There were no textbooks to lead the sensor designer through all the relevant areas, information on which was widely scattered. By the early s, pressure sensors with on-chip readout electronics were also in production and bulk micromachining was being applied to flowmeters, accelerometers, inkjet print heads, and other devices.

At this point, the field of "integrated sensors" began to organize itself, establishing independent meetings to complement special sessions at microelectronics conferences. Surface micromachining came on the scene in the mids and quickly led to applications in accelerometers, pressure sensors, and other electromechanical structures. Microactuators became the focus for considerable work, and the notion of putting entire closed-loop systems on a chip became a real goal.

The field needed an acronym, and "MEMS" MicroElectroMechanical Systems was gradually adopted, in spite of the fact that many of the devices were not really mechanical. The term "microsystems" also became increasingly com- mon in referring to the integration of sensors, actuators, and signal-processing electronics on a common but not necessarily monolithic substrate. The field at this point began to see the long-needed entry of mechanical engineers, but it was still centered in academia.

And there were still few, if any, courses in sensors or MEMS. It was a research focus for people trained mostly in electrical engineering and physics, and the mechanics, chemistry, or materials information needed as an adjunct to microelectronics had to be dug out by people not primarily trained in those fields.

There were still no textbooks on microsystems. Beginning in the late 80s, MEMS received increasing emphasis worldwide. Similar investments were being made in Europe and Asia, so that after more than 25 years the field finally reached crit- ical mass.

The s saw MEMS-based inkjet print heads, pressure sensors, flowmeters, accelerometers, gyros, uncooled infrared imagers, and optical pro- jection displays all enter production. Emphasis on full microsystems increased.


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More advanced devices are now being developed, including DNA analyzers, integrated gas chromatography systems, and miniature mass spectrometers. Microsystem design now cuts across most disciplines in engineering and is the focus for courses, and degree programs, at many major universities.

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These courses, which must be open to individuals with a wide range of backgrounds, need material covering an equally wide range of subjects in a coherent, unified way. This book will be a major help in meeting these challenges. The author has been a principal figure guiding the development of microsystems for more than two decades, through both his research contributions and his leadership of the conferences and journals that have defined the field.


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  • The book itself is It is all here — the technology, the modeling, the analysis methods, and the structures. The important principles of materials, mechanics, and fluidics are here so that the designer can understand and predict these aspects of advanced structures. And the electronics is here so that he or she can also understand the signal readout and processing challenges and the use of on-chip feedback control. Noise is covered so that the basic limitations to accuracy and resolution can likewise be anticipated. Finally, case studies tie everything together, highlighting important devices of current interest.

    Because this text brings together all of the topics required for microsystem design, it will both accelerate development of the field and give rise to a new type ofengineer, the microsystems engineer, who can combine knowledge from many disciplines to solve problems at the micro- and nano-levels.


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    Microsys- tems are now much more than a specialized sub-area of microelectronics; in substantial measure, they are the key to its future, forming the front-ends of global information technology networks and bridges from microelectronics to biotechnology and the cellular world. Certainly, many challenges lie ahead, but the basic principles presented here formeeting them will remain valid. And as the physicist Richard Feynman said in proposing microsystems over forty years ago, there really is plenty of room at the bottom!

    Kensall D.

    Advanced Microsystem Design- Final Project Test 2

    This page intentionally left blank The subject matter is wide ranging: microfabrication, mechanics, heat flow, electronics, noise, and dynamics of systems, with and without feedback. Martin Schmidt and I co-taught for the first time in the Fall of I then offered it as a solo flight in the Spring of Our goal was to exploit our highly interdisciplinary student mix, with students from electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and chemical engineering. We used design projects carried out by teams of four students as the focus ofthe semester, and with this mix ofstudents, we could assign to each team someone experienced in microfabrication, another who really understood system dynamics, another with background in electronics, and so on.

    Lectures for the first two-thirds ofthe semester presented the material that, now in much expanded form, comprises the first sixteen chapters of this book. Then, while the teams of students were hard at work on their own design problems more on this below , we presented a series of lectures on various case studies from current MEMS practice.

    First and foremost, I greatly expanded both the depth and breadth of the coverage of fundamental material. In fact, I expanded it to such an extent that it is now unlikely I can cover it all within a one-semester course. Therefore, I expect that teachers will have to make selections of certain topics to be emphasized and others that must be skipped or left to the students to read on their own.

    While this had the effect ofgreatly enriching the content of thebook, itcreatedatemporary deficiency inhomeworkproblems thathas only been partially repaired by the rather modest set of new homework problems that I created for the printed book. Thanks to the world-wide web, though, we now have an efficient mechanism fordistributing additional homeworkproblems as they become available. I am hoping to provide, both by example and by presentation of the under- lying fundamentals, an approach to design and modeling that any engineering student can learn to use.

    Microsystem design

    The emphasis is on lumped-element models using either a network representation or a block-diagram representation. Critical to the success of such an approach is the development of methods for creating the model elements. Thus, there is a chapter on the use of energy methods and variational methods to form approximate analytical solutions to problems in which energy is conserved, and a chapter on two different approaches to cre- ating lumped models for dissipative systems that obey the heat flow equation or its steady-state relative, the Laplace equation.

    In a few places, I provide comparisons to the results ofmeshed numerical simulations usingfinite-elementmethods, but that is not the main purpose of the book. The Case Studies that form Part V of the book were selected to sample a multidimensional space: different manufacturing and fabrication methods, different device applications, different physical effects used for transduction.